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PCB´s Design - General principles of PCB´s design (part #1)

PCB´s Design - General principles of PCB´s design (part #1)

How to design PCBs correctly, to reach boards which are cost-effective to produce and to populate? Which are the most important PCB design principles? What about production technology of PCB? We have prepared for you a series of articles about the PCB´s design.

PCBs are integral part of all electronic devices. Their basic function is to create a conductive connection between the pins of the individual components. PCBs first appeared in late '60s, when there were the first rules for their design and production drawn up - IPC standards. The standard IPC-2221 "Generic Standards on Printed Design".

What is the first step when designing PCB? In electronic praxis, 3 types of components are used and possibilities of their soldering are:
  1. components with leads "Through Hole" – TH (axial, radial), can be soldered by hand or by wave,
  2. leaded components for a surface mount – "Surface Mount Devices" – SMD, which can be soldered in a reflow oven or by a wave,
  3. no-lead components for a surface mount – "Surface Mount Devices" – SMD, which can be soldered in reflow oven.
With these three types of components you can create an electronic device in which these components are placed on a carrier - printed circuit boards (PCB). Components can be populated on a PCB either on one side (SMD, TH or a combination of both) or on both sides (TH only on a top side, SMT on both). When the PCB is designed, there must be placement of components on PCB and type of soldering technology considered, because different rules apply when soldering by solder wave and different for soldering in the reflow oven.

1. Soldering by solder wave If we want to solder components on bottom of PCB by solder wave, we must ensure that during the soldering process components will not fall off. SMT components on the upper side will be populated into a solder paste, then soldered in a reflow open. SMT components on the bottom of the PCB will be bonded by a glue and then TH components will get into holes in a PCB. SMT components in a glue and TH components will be soldered by a solder wave.

To populate components with leads on one side of the PCB is easy process as only leads are sink into the solder wave and conductive joint is created. Interesting is it in case of SMD components, when whole components are sink into the solder wave and therefore must withstand temperatures of waves that may be up to 260 ° C. On a PCB side, which will be soldered by a wave, only such SMT components should be placed, which are recommended by producer to be soldered by a wave and they meet a condition at least 260 °C for 10 seconds heat resistance. Such as ceramic resistors, MELF, MINIMELF, monolithic capacitors, components in SOT, SOD, SOP packages with minimum pitch of 0.65 mm, in order to avoid a short circuit of the integrated circuit, as wave washes each pin of parts and may result in the creation of so-called bridge or resistive and capacitive trimmers if designed in a way to prevent solder ingress.

We need to put down components that can withstand temperatures of solder wave and have the necessary spacing of the leads. In respect to a way of soldering it´s necessary to take into account distances among SMT components, their orientation against a solder wave as well as a height of particular components. Components should be turned so that their leads created a right angle with a solder wave. This way a proper flush of leads by a wave will be ensured. However, this requirement can only by met if using components with leads on only two opposite sides (SO, SOP, SOIC...). In case of integrated circuits with leads on all 4 sides, we need to place them on top of the PCB and populate in a reflow oven. It is also recommended to create robber pads behind the integrated circuitto reduce solder bridging from the last leads pair. It may prevent from short circuit, but lessen the scope for conductive connection.

2. Soldering by solder paste This is the most common way of soldering today. In this case, conductive connection is created by components placing into solder paste, which is applied before components populating. The joint is thus created also under components. When using a solder paste for soldering, we´ll avoid problems with components twisting. This method of soldering increases integration of components on a PCB. There´s no need to take in mind height relations of particular SMT components (tantallum capacitors, power MELF resistors, power transistors) and this method is also the only suitable for soldering of SMT components with a heatsink pad on a bottom side of a package and also for soldering of SMT components without leads.
Wave soldering can cause on some SMT components an unwanted effect called Tombstoning. By influence of imbalance of forces acting on both ends of a component, the component can „get up“ as a „Tomb stone“ (mainly at two-pin components like resistors, capacitors,.....). This effect is caused by irregular temperature spread on a PCB during reflow. This can be eliminated by correct applying of the solder past using a metal template.

General rules for PCB design in terms of production technology First of all you need to know where the board is manufactured. Basic information, we should know are:
  1. The minimum track width - W,
  2. The minimum isolation gap - I,
  3. Minimum diameter of a Via (metal through-plated opening) - D.
These parameters determines the density of PCBs that can produce - so called accuracy class. At present it is necessary to use a standard accuracy class 6 or higher. This information need to be applied to design setting rules. The system then does not allow make a line that is not in accordance with these criteria.

Videos

2017050411 / 25.05.2017 / Various / SOS electronic s.r.o. /

Apacer Brings New Technologies to SSD
Apacer Brings New Technologies to SSD
New Apacer’s SSDs improve already high data integrity, longevity, security, and survivability. Let’s have a look at how they did it.
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TRACO POWER 10 Watt DC/DC converter for space-limited applications.
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Get more space on PCB with TEL 10WI
Artificial Intelligence on the Edge of Your Network
Artificial Intelligence on the Edge of Your Network
This is not the topic of the future; with AAEON hardware you can handle the deployment of artificial intelligence now. Read the article to find out how it all works and what you need for that.
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More than 100 new active tips for each soldering joint
The largest Weller product range expansion includes three soldering handles and more than 100 tips with active heating, suitable for microscopic work to solder coolers and LEDs on PCB with aluminum base.
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More than 100 new active tips for each soldering joint
Oscilloscopes that will surprise you with superior features already in the basic class
Oscilloscopes that will surprise you with superior features already in the basic class
The vast array of useful features and the concept of future growth; this is the Rohde&Schwarz RTB 200x series of oscilloscopes.
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Replace the good relay with an even better one
Finder has found a new, versatile and cheaper solution. The well-known relays of 44.52 and 44.62 series will be replaced by the new one - 40.62.
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Replace the good relay with an even better one
WINSTA – Perfect in Details
WINSTA – Perfect in Details
Winsta is the pluggable connection system from WAGO. The system has been particularly developed for building installations and offers connections for virtually any building requirement from power supply to bus lines.
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Sensirion – The Sensor Company
Overview of the basic information and our tips for CO2, VOC, humidity, temperature, liquid and gas flow sensors. If you are looking for a solution, Sensirion will not disappoint you.
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Sensirion – The Sensor Company
SOS electronic webinar: How to set up PICO-PI-IMX8M-MINI-2G-DEV for your first Qt application?
SOS electronic webinar: How to set up PICO-PI-IMX8M-MINI-2G-DEV for your first Qt application?


SOS electronic - Term: 2019.09.11 10:00 - 11:00
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Quartz Crystals and Quartz Crystal Oscillators Ansen
Without crystal oscillators, there would be no wireless communication, GPS receivers or Ethernet. Therefore, we are expanding the portfolio of suppliers with the renowned ANSEN manufacturer. Although new technologies such as MEMS oscillators exist, crystal oscillators remain the dominant source of accurate and stable frequency.
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Quartz Crystals and Quartz Crystal Oscillators Ansen
Can penguin live in desert?
Can penguin live in desert?
Not likely. Similarly, neither an ordinary networking cable wouldn´t survive in a harsh industrial environment without harm. You can prevent undesired secondary costs and ensure the safety for your network by installing a robust cable.
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W6100 is ready for IPv6
With the enormous growth of IoT devices connected to the networking, it became evident that far more addresses would be needed to connect devices than the IPv4 address space had available. Wiznet has a solution.
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W6100 is ready for IPv6 
Webinar recording: LPWA technology
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We are excited about your interest in our “SOS Webinar with Quectel: LPWA (NB-IoT + LTE Cat M1)”. Such high participation in technically oriented webinars is not always a matter of course.
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We are expanding the portfolio of IoT products with the world brand USR IoT
Building ESP32 products fast
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ESP-Jumpstart is Espressif’s new reference guide which aims to help developers convert their ideas into actual products as quickly as possible.
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SVM30 Module - a complete solution for HVAC applications
The SVM30 measures concentration of VOC, relative humidity and temperature and calculates CO2eq from measured concentration of H2. It uses SGP30 and SHTC1 sensors. At first glance, however, it seems to be quite big, check it out with us.
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SVM30 Module - a complete solution for HVAC applications
RTC-1010: The Optimal Combination of Performance, Durability and Interfaces
RTC-1010: The Optimal Combination of Performance, Durability and Interfaces
The rugged 10,1” tablet is a perfect tool for industrial field service and maintenance or mobile HMI. It offers industry standard interfaces and connectors, hot-swappable battery and optional barcode reader, as well as the fact that it has been designed to allow customization.
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THL15WI Series operates at 15W power in smaller case
The higher energy efficiency, maintaining the quality and a lower cost. These parameters were the cornerstones for the new THL15WI family from TRACO in a 1 x 1 x 0.4″ metal case.
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THL15WI Series operates at 15W power in smaller case
Company of the week

Keysight Technologies
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Fischer Connectors SA


Nicomatic


TE Connectivity


akYtec GmbH


SOS electronic s.r.o.


MARVELL


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ČEZ a.s.


Pickering Interfaces Ltd


ANRITSU


Mouser Electronics


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ACS Motion Control


LASER COMPONENTS


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Apacer Technology Inc.


Pico Technology
Calendary
NEPCON Japan, Tokio, 15.1.-17.1.2020
DistribuTECH, 28.1.-30.1.2020, San Antonio, TX
BATTERY JAPAN, Tokyo, 26.2.-28.2.2020
BATTERY JAPAN, Osaka, 9.9.-11.9.2020
IMTS2020, 14.9.-19.9.2020, Chicago, IL
ISE 2021, Barcelona, Spain, 2.2.-5.2.2021
DistribuTECH, 9.2.-11.2.2021, San Diego, CA
BATTERY JAPAN, Tokyo, 3.3.-5.3.2021
BATTERY JAPAN, Osaka, 29.9.-1.10.2021
DistribuTECH, 25.1.-27.1.2022, Dallas, TX
DistribuTECH, 7.2.-9.2.2023, San Diego, CA
DistribuTECH, 23.1.-25.1.2024, Indianapolis, IN
DistribuTECH, 11.2.-13.2.2025, Dallas, TX
Interesting video
The ISS Design Challenge ...
Interesting video
Mouser Electronics Warehouse Tour with Grant Imahara
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